Date of Exam: 6 August 2009
Review Version: 4 August 2009
In the following, I list the topics covered in class and information which I
consider important to know. I tried to make the list as complete as possible,
but there may be things which I have inadvertently failed to list. Also,
the precise amount of material to be tested is determined by how far I
get through the notes by the end of Tuesday, August 4, 2009. I will adjust
the review sheet after class tomorrow.
Reading: First, read and
study your class notes and then the Web notes. If you wish, the text may be
used rather than the web notes. There is no replacement for the class notes.
Your class notes will help you to
focus on things which I consider to be
the most important and note that the
introduction was drawn from various parts of the
text and from other independent sources. There are
also sometimes things said in class which
may not appear in the Web notes and/or the text for
which you are responsible.
Inverse Square Law: Flux (brightness) depends on the distance from the star as:
Flux is proportional to 1/D2
- Why do we study stars?
What makes the understanding of stars interesting,
beyond the intrinsic value of having knowledge for knowledge's sake?
- What are the things which make astronomy a difficult
- What is the luminosity of the Sun? What is the Solar Constant? What is
meant by Albedo?
- In what ways do stars serve as high energy
physics laboratories? What are neutrinos? What did Ray Davis do?
What are the Super-K and SNO experiments? Ten years ago, we thought that there
was a lack of Solar neutrinos, how has our viewpoint changed? What have we
learned about neutrinos as a result of the Solar Neutrino Experiment?
- What is nucleosynthesis (element production)?
What does it have to do with stars and the Earth?
- How does the Sun generate energy?
What are the documented Solar-Terrestrial
What is the Solar Activity Cycle? What is the Maunder Minimum? When
was the Maunder Minimum? What is the significance
of the Little Ice Age which struck Europe in the mid 1600s (in
terms of Solar variability)? Roughly, how large
is the variation of the Solar power
(Solar constant) over a Sunspot cycle? Are
there noticeable effects of this variation on the climate of the Earth?
- What is the Faint Young Sun Problem? What is meant by the
Equilibrium Temperature in the context of the Faint Young Sun Problem?
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
- What are the ways we study stars?
- What are the most important ways which we use to study
stars (e.g., light, particles, ...)? Historically, what has been the most
useful method to study stars? Why? Has this changed (and continues to change?)
- What is electromagnetic radiation? Physically, what is EM
radiation? How did we define energy in class?
What is meant by electromagnetic
spectrum? What are the parts of the
electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing frequency? What are the
parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing wavelength?
What parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
penetrate the atmosphere of the Earth?
- Define wavelength and frequency.
How are they related to the energy of
light? Which has the longer wavelength, blue or red light? How do the
propagation speeds of blue light and red light compare?
- What is seeing? What were the principle advantages of the
Hubble Space Telescope? That is, what were the advantages gained by
placing a telescope into orbit about the Earth?
- What is gravitational radiation? How did Einstein view the gravitational
force? What is meant by space-time? Is space-time rigid? What does it mean
to say space-time is not rigid? How is gravitational radiation produced?
- What are the properites we listed in class? What are th
ranges for the properties of stars? (what is the
most important property of stars we mentioned in class?) What is the
signifiance of the sizes of the ranges of the properties of stars?
- What is meant by temperature? WHat is meant by absolute zero? What scale is
most commonly used by astronomers and other scientists?
- How do we determine the masses
of stars? Explain how orbital motion works. Roughly how many stars are in
binary (multiple) star systems?